1. Leverage ratios Discuss alternative measures of financial leverage. Should the market value of equity be used or the book value? Is it better to use the market value of debt or the book value? How should you treat off-balance-sheet obligations such as pension liabilities? How would you treat preferred stock?
2. Leverage ratios Suppose that a firm has both fixed-rate and floating-rate debt outstanding. What effect will a decline in interest rates have on the firm’s times-interest-earned ratio? What about the ratio of the market value of debt to that of equity? Would you judge that leverage has increased or decreased?